Equalization of Returns to Education in Pakistan: A Dynamical District-Level Analysis

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Muhammad Nauman Malik
Masood Sarwar Awan


This study intends to seek the dynamical change (convergence/divergence) in
returns to education at district level using Pakistan Social and Living Standard
Measurement (PSLM) data (2004-05 to 2012-13) in Pakistan. This study finds
out that the supply and demand forces are not working symmetrically for all
districts of the country which is against the ideals of inclusiveness. Convergence
phenomenon is being observed only for the districts of Punjab province. It shows
that institutional mechanisms in deprived provinces are performing poor in the
context of symmetric management of supply and demand of educated labor force.

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